RAW Glossary


Definitions

Absorbent Capacity / Absorption Capacity / Absorbency
definition:

The absorbent capacity indicates how much liquid a sorbent can soak up. The value is usually given in litres per sales unit. During testing, a special oil mixture is used having characteristics similar to fuel oil.       

Acid
definition:

An acid is an aqueous solution with acidic reaction; it has a pH value between 0 - 6.

ADR
acronym of:

(Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises Dangereuses par Route) European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road. It contains special provisions for road transport regarding security of loads and labelling of dangerous goods. The information on PPE – Personal Protective Equipment – must be observed as well. See also Spill Kit.     

ASTM Connector
definition:

Universal quick coupling for Passive Oil Booms. It is also called Z-connector. Both sections of the oil booms are simply interlocked with each other and secured by a cotter pin.      

Average
definition:

Average is a vehicle breakdown, the root of the word is found in Arabic and is used in conjunction with ships. The term became known in connection with tanker accidents as Oil Disaster.     

Barrel (Unit of Measurement)
definition:

An oil barrel is an American unit of volume. 1 oil barrel = 158,9872 litres. Not to be confused with the American beer barrel. 1 US beer barrel = 117.3477 litres.       

Belly Patch
definition:

Sealing pad of polyurethane for drums. To securely cover cracks and holes in drums of any kind when leaks occur. The soft and sticky material seals off leaks in a clean way without leaving any residue. The Belly Patch (or Drum Tourniquet) has high chemical resistance, is easy to clean and designed for repeated use.  

Belt Skimmer
definition:

Electronically controlled device to remove tramp oils from water surfaces, process baths, ultrasonic baths or coolants. The oil is separated from the liquid by a driven belt and it sticks to this belt. The belt passes through a mechanical scraper and is conveyed to a recovery tank or it can be pumped off. See also Oil Skimmers.     

BetrSichV – Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health
acronym of:

The "Betriebssicherheitsverordnung" (BetrSichV - Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health) is the German implementation of the Directive 89/665/EEC concerning the safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment and regulates, in Germany, the provision of work equipment by the employer, the use of work equipment by the workers at work and the operation of installations subject to monitoring according to occupational health and safety criteria. The protection concept contained in this Ordinance can be applied to all hazards caused by work equipment.

BGR 192 – Standards for the use of eye and face protection
definition:

German rules of the employer's liability insurance association concerning safety and health at work .

Big Bag
definition:

The Big Bag is a flexible and medium-size container for bulk material. Also known as FIBC "Flexible Intermediate Bulk Container". Capacity approx. 1000 - 1300 litres, usually Euro Pallet dimensions.       

CE Marking (Conformité Européenne)
definition:

The CE marking is the manufacturer's declaration that his product meets the requirements of the current European directives.    

CMA - Calcium Magnesium Acetate
acronym of:

It is used for suppressing fine dust or as a de-icing agent.   

Containment Booms
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

Containment Capacity
definition:

The Sump Pallet must have sufficient capacity to contain the volume of the largest container and in any case not less than 10% of the volume of the stored liquid. In water protection areas, 100% of the stored quantity must be contained (and the storage must be allowed).

Containment Sumps
definition:

There are Containment Sumps made of steel and plastic, for storing acids and bases it is necessary to use sumps of stainless steel or plastic. In the majority of cases, the models of plastic material prove to be the best solution as a result of the lower weight and the unproblematic use with chemicals. Due to the manufactuing process, it is not possible to produce containment sumps of plastic with special design. Steel must be used for this purpose. In Germany, Containment Sumps may be used only if they are tested and approved by the Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik (DiBt - German Institute for Construction Technology). It is also important to choose the proper capacity.             

Coolants / Cutting Fluids
definition:

Cooling lubricants are used in the metalworking industry to cool down and lubricate metals during machining. The conditions favourable to the growth of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) are water contaminated with germs, excessively low pH value of the emulsion/dispersion, insufficient emulsion movement, impurities from outside sources (tramp oils), etc.            

Corrosive
definition:

A substance is corrosive when it can destroy tissue or other materials at the site of contact. Examples: sulphuric acid, caustic soda, drain cleaners. GHS label element: corrosion.        

Cubic Decimetre (Measuring Unit)
definition:

1 cubic decimetre = 1 dm³ = 1 litre

Cubic Measures
definition:

A measuring unit. Cubic measures / measures of capacity bbl = 1 Oil Barrel (measuring unit) gal = 1 Gallon (measuring unit) (US liq. gal.) dm³ = 1 cubic decimetre (measuring unit) m³ = 1 cubic metre (measuring unit).

Cubic Metre (Measuring Unit)
definition:

1 cubic metre = 1 m³ = 1000 litre

Curtain Oil Containment Boom
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

Dangerous Goods
definition:

Materials, preparations and items containing substances which, due to their nature, physical or chemical characteristics or their condition, can pose a specific risk when transported.     

Dangerous to the Environment
definition:

A substance is dangerous to the environment when it can cause a change to water, soil, air, climate, animals, plants or microorganisms and thereby environmental damage is provoked, either immediately or later. Examples: potassium permanganate. GHS label element: environment. 

De-icing Agent / Melting Agent
definition:

A De-icing Agent lowers the freezing point of water. Snow should be cleared on areas covered with it. Variants:     

DIBt - German Institute for Construction Technology
acronym of:

Authority of the German Länder Governments for a uniform fulfillment of technical tasks in the field of public law.

Drain Cover
definition:

See Gully Covers

Drain Plug
definition:

Drain Plug of polyurethane. Safe seal of smaller drains and gullies when leaks occur. It can be also used for pipes and other round openings. Drain Plugs have a high chemical resistance, are easily cleaned and can be used repeatedly.

Drain Protector
definition:

Drain Cover of polyurethane. To securely cover drains when leaks occur. The soft and sticky material seals off leaks in a clean way without leaving any residue. The Drain Protector has high chemical resistance, is easy to clean and designed for repeated use.   

Drum Seal
definition:

See Belly Patch.

Drum Skimmer
definition:

Equipment with pneumatic drive to remove tramp oils from the surface of the water, process baths, ultrasonic baths or coolants. The oil is separated from the liquid by means of one or more rotating drums to which the liquid adheres. The drums are fitted with a mechanical scraper conveying the oil into a recovery tank, from where it can be pumped away. Also see Skimmers.      

Easily Flammable
definition:

A substance is easily flammable when it may become hot and finally catch fire in contact with air at ambient temperature without any application of energy and, in the liquid state, it has a flash point below 21 °C. Examples: acetone, gasoline, ethanol. GHS label element: flame. 

Electronic Waste
definition:

Is related to the Directive WEEE - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. 

ElektroG - Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act
abbreviation of:

German implementation of the European Directive WEEE (2002/96/EC, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) for the disposal of old electronic equipment.  

Emulsion
definition:

An emulsion is formed when you try, by means of an emulsifying agent (surfactant), to mix two liquids that ordinarily do not combine due to their chemical characteristic. Example: If you try to mix a lipophobic and hydrophilic liquid like water with a lipophilic and hydrophobic liquid like oil, oil permanently floats above the water. Using an additional surfactant, an emulsion is formed. The boundary between the two original liquids disappears and a fine and homogeneous mixture will form.                

Explosive
definition:

A substance is explosive when it could easily explode. Examples: TNT, nitroglycerin, picric acid. GHS label element: exploding bomb.     

Fence Oil Booms
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

FIBC - Flexible Intermediate Bulk Container
acronym of:

See Big Bag

Fine Dust
definition:

The term Fine Dust was adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA in its "National Air Quality" Standard for Particulate Matter (PM Standard) in1987. It describes a certain fraction of small and tiny particles of the dust suspended in the air. The main sources are, according to the Federal Ministry for the Environment, private households, industry, power and heating plants, road traffic.   

Fluidity
definition:

Provides information on the flowability  of a substance. The higher the fluidity, the more fluid the substance will be.     

Foldable Sumps
definition:

See Containment Sumps.

Foreign Oil
definition:

Tramp oils are oils from the machine tools. Emulsions and dispersions normally used in the metalworking industry are subjected to extremely heavy stress such as introducing tramp oils from the machine tools. If tramp oils float on the surface like a thick cream layer, the emulsion can not breathe. When an emulsion is not able to breathe, it dies and causes malodours.  

Gallon (Unit of Measurement)
definition:

The gallon is an American unit of volume. 1 gallon = 3,7854 litres.    

GefStoffV – Ordinance on Hazardous Substances
abbreviation of:

The Ordinance on Hazardous Substances is a regulation in the German occupational health and safety to protect against dangerous substances. The power to issue statutory instruments is contained in the Chemicals Act (ChemG). Since 2005, also the Health and Safety At Work Act has been legal basis for the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances.     

GGVS – Ordinance on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
acronym of:

GGVS has been replaced by GGVSE.

GGVSE - Ordinance on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail
acronym of:

This ordinance on the national and international transport of dangerous goods by road and rail regulated the national carriage of dangerous goods by road and rail. It has been replaced by GGVSEB and it was included in this last one.       

GGVSEB - Ordinance on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail and Inland Waterways
acronym of:

Ordinance on the national and international transport of dangerous goods by road, rail and inland waterways.   

Gloves
definition:

Personal protective equipment for the protection of hands. Regulated by BGR 195 – Standards for the use of protective gloves.   

Grammage
definition:

Grammage indicates the weight per square metre in the group of the Nonwoven Oil Sorbents and Nonwoven Universal Sorbents. With increasing grammage, the suction power will also be higher.  

Grit for Winter Clearance
definition:

Mineral granules to restore grip on traffic areas covered with snow or ice. Also see De-icing Agent.  

Gully Cover
definition:

See Drain Protector.

Harmful Substances / Toxic Substances
definition:

Harmful substances are defined as those substances or mixtures of substances present in the environment which are capable of causing harm to humans, animals and the ecosystem. The danger may occur when the substance is released into the ecosystem or it is absorbed by an organism. Natural harmful substances – natural poisons of animals, plants, microorganisms. Synthetic harmful substances – human-made substances or mixtures of substances which are hazardous to health and the environment, in the form of main product, by-product or waste product. The classification as hazardous substance depends on the type of material, for certain substances it is dependant on concentration and / or amount, other substances are classified as hazardous already when they occur in very small amounts.    

Harmful to Health
definition:

A substance is harmful to health when, if inhaled, swallowed or it penetrates the skin, it can lead to death or cause acute / chronic damage to health. Examples: potassium chlorate. GHS label element: health hazard. 

Hazard Symbols
definition:

Hazardous Materials or Dangerous Substances are chemical materials or mixtures of substances which, in Germany and the EU, are classified according to their hazard potential on the basis of laws and directives. The dangerous nature of a substance or of a preparation is indicated by R and S phrases as well as hazard symbols or hazard labels.

Hazardous Material
definition:

Hazardous Materials or Dangerous Substances are chemical materials or mixtures of substances which, in Germany and the EU, are classified according to their hazard potential on the basis of laws and directives. The dangerous nature of a substance or of a preparation is indicated by R and S phrases as well as hazard symbols or hazard labels. Hazardous materials are subject to labelling! A short extract from the most common hazard symbols:        

  • Corrosive - A substance is corrosive when it can destroy tissue or other materials at the site of contact. Examples: sulphuric acid, caustic soda, drain cleaners. GHS label element: corrosion.
  • Explosive - A substance is explosive when it could easily explode. Examples: TNT, nitroglycerin, picric acid. GHS label element: exploding bomb.
  • Oxidising - An oxidising substance is a material that is not necessarily combustible, but may contribute to the combustion of other materials. Examples: oxygen, salts rich in oxygen such as potassium chlorate, peroxide, fluorine. GHS label element: flame over circle.
  • Flammable - A substance is easily flammable when it may become hot and finally catch fire in contact with air at ambient temperature without any application of energy and, in the liquid state, it has a flash point below 21 °C. Examples: acetone, gasoline, ethanol. GHS label element: flame.    
  • Highly flammable - A substance is highly flammable when it has a boiling point below 35 °C and, in the liquid state, a flash point below 0 °C. Examples: hydrogen, ethyne, diethyl ether. GHS label element: flame.     
  • Irritant - A substance is irritant when - without being corrosive - through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane, it can cause inflammation. Examples: potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate. GHS label element: exclamation mark.   
  • Harmful - A substance is harmful to health when, if inhaled, swallowed or it penetrates the skin, it can lead to death or cause acute / chronic damage to health. Examples: potassium chlorate. GHS label element: health hazard.     
  • Toxic - A substance is toxic when, if inhaled, swallowed or it penetrates the skin in small quantities, it can lead to death or cause acute / chronic damage to health. Examples: methanol, carbon tetrachloride. GHS label element: skull and crossbones.          
  • Very toxic - A substance is very toxic when, if inhaled, swallowed or it penetrates the skin in very small quantities, it can lead to death or cause acute / chronic damage to health. Examples: heroin, nicotine. GHS label element: skull and crossbones. 
  • Dangerous to the environment - A substance is dangerous to the environment when it can cause a change to water, soil, air, climate, animals, plants or microorganisms and thereby environmental damage is provoked, either immediately or later. Examples: potassium permanganate. GHS label element: environment.          
Hazardous Waste
definition:

Also called Special Waste or Special Refuse.

Hazardous Waste / Special Waste
definition:

Special waste is defined as a waste material presenting dangerous properties and, for this reason, posing a potential risk to the environment and/or health. This includes, among others, spent solvents, acids, bases, paint sludges, obsolete pesticides, hospital waste, laboratory chemicals, filter dusts and materials contaminated with heavy metals. The Europe-wide basis for the disposal of these materials is the EU Directive 91/689/EEC, in particular its implementation at State level. For Germany, the "Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (KrW-/AbfG)" - Closed Substance Cycle and Waste Management Act - applies, it determines a waste disposal code according to which the various materials must be disposed of.                         

HDPE
acronym of:

HDPE is a plastic material. The acronym stands for "high density polyethylene". It consists of polymer chains having a low degree of branching, the material has therefore a high density.       

Highly Flammable
definition:

A substance is highly flammable when it has a boiling point below 35 °C and, in the liquid state, a flash point below 0 °C. Examples: hydrogen, ethyne, diethyl ether. GHS label element: flame.  

Hydrophilic
definition:

Absorbing water, having a strong affinity for water, the contrary of hydrophobic. The property of a substance due to its chemical composition. This property applies not only to water but also to water-based liquids such as, for example, acids or alkalis. Hydrophilic materials are normally lipophobic. An exception are surfactants, they are lipophilic and hydrophilic at the same time.          

Hydrophobic
definition:

Repelling water, the contrary of hydrophilic. The property of a substance due to its chemical composition. This property applies not only to water but also to water-based liquids such as, for example, acids or alkalis. Hydrophobic materials are normally lipophilic. An exception are surfactants, they are lipophilic and hydrophilic at the same time.  

Inflatable Oil Booms
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

Irritant
definition:

A substance is irritant when - without being corrosive - through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane, it can cause inflammation. Examples: potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate. GHS label element: exclamation mark. 

LDPE
acronym of:

LDPE is a plastic material. The acronym stands for "low density polyethylene". It consists of polymer chains having a high degree of branching, the material has therefore a low density.

Lipophilic
definition:

Having an affinity for oil, absorbing oil, the contrary of lipophobic. The property of a substance due to its chemical composition. This property applies not only to oil but also to oil-based materials (e.g. diesel, plastics, etc.). Lipophilic materials are normally hydrophobic. An exception are surfactants, they are lipophilic and hydrophilic at the same time.  

Lipophobic
definition:

Repelling oil, the contrary of lipophilic. The property of a substance due to its chemical composition. Lipophobic materials are normally hydrophilic. An exception are surfactants, they are lipophilic and hydrophilic at the same time. 

Lubricant
definition:

Material used to reduce friction as well as wear and tear (lubricating material).

Lubricating Grease
definition:

Material used to reduce friction as well as wear and tear (lubricant).  

Lubricating Materials
definition:

Materials used to reduce friction as well as wear and tear are called lubricants. They are also used for corrosion protection, vibration damping, cooling, sealing effect and power transmission. Lubricants are divided in different forms / physical states: liquid lubricants (lubricating oils and cooling lubricants), lubricating greases, solid lubricants (e.g. graphite), gaseous lubricants (e.g. air). All lubricants consist, in principle, of a base fluid to which appropriate additives are added (additional ingredients). Lubricants have to be changed or renewed at specific but regular intervals. Following factors play a role: thermal influence – when the lubricant is used as a heat conductor; mechanical influence – when the lubricant reduces the action of friction; aging – certain additives lose their effectiveness; interaction with other materials – fuels, air, moisture, etc. 

Lubricating Oil
definition:

Material used to reduce friction as well as wear and tear (lubricant).

Lye / Alkaline Solution
definition:

A lye is an aqueous solution with alkaline / basic reaction; it has a pH value between 8 - 14.

Manhole Cover
definition:

See Drain Protector.

Measures of Capacity
definition:

A measuring unit. Cubic measures / measures of capacity bbl = 1 Oil Barrel (measuring unit) gal = 1 Gallon (measuring unit) (US liq. gal.) dm³ = 1 cubic decimetre (measuring unit) m³ = 1 cubic metre (measuring unit). 

Measuring Units
definition:

Cubic measures / measures of capacity bbl = 1 Oil Barrel (measuring unit) gal = 1 Gallon (measuring unit) (US liq. gal.) dm³ = 1 cubic decimetre (measuring unit) m³ = 1 cubic metre (measuring unit).

Mineral Oil
definition:

Oils produced by the distillation of petroleum, wood, coal, peat, lignite or other mineral raw materials are referred to as "mineral oils". These are in particular heating fuels, motor fuels and lubricants such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, bunker oil, heating oil, etc.    

Nonwoven Oil Absorbent
definition:

Actively absorbing Nonwoven Absorbent of poypropylene. Due to its hydrophobic and lipophilic properties, it is only suitable for absorbing oil or oil-based liquids (e.g. diesel). For this reason, it is also used to separate or to soak up surface or tramp oils from water surfaces or from other water-based liquids. Nonwoven Oil Sorbent is available in a wide range of qualities, forms, dimensions and weights. Depending on the version, the absorption capacity may vary. Qualities: FineFiber SonicBonded MeltBlown. Forms: Pads Pad Rolls Flakes Absorbent Pillows Absorbent Sock Absorbent Sweep Oil Booms (active). Weights: SuperHeavyWeight (SHW) HeavyWeight (HW) SingleWeight (SW).              

Nonwoven Sorbents
definition:

Nonwoven Sorbents are available in two different versions: Oil Sorbents and Universal Sorbents.    

Oil Absorbent Booms
definition:

Oil Absorbent Booms consist of a textile fabric sausage shaped tube filled with actively absorbing material. The most common and practicable fill is made of polypropylene Oil Absorbent Flakes. They are compressed and the boom is therefore very form stable. The fabric tube encasing the boom gives an optimal and uniform shape to the Oil Absorbent Flakes, even when fully saturated.     

Oil Absorbent Flakes
definition:

Oil Absorbent Flakes are shredded oil sorbents of polypropylene. Due to their lipophilic properties, they are used to absorb surface or tramp oils from water surfaces or from other water-based liquids. The flakes provide a maximum contact area to absorb the oil and they ensure very high absorption and retention capacity, without allowing the absorbed oil to escape again. Oil Absorbent Flakes are hydrophobic and so they float, like oil, on the surface of the water. Due to these characteristics, Oil Absorbent Flakes are also used to fill Active Oil Booms. Universal Absorbent Flakes are the contrary of the oil absorbent ones.          

Oil Binders
definition:

Common Oil Binders shall a) not contain harmful substances, b) lead to a lasting change of the physical, chemical and biological nature of water and soil, c) are not susceptible to decomposition or spontaneous ignition under normal storage condtions and d) do not contain lumps or foreign particles. Types:         

  • Type I: Oil Binders which are particularly suitable for use on water bodies.
  • Type II: Oil Binders for general use on smaller water bodies and on land.
  • Type III: Oil Binders for special needs, especially for commercial and industrial applications. It is not necessary that these Oil Binders are water repellent.  
  • Type III R: Special form of the Oil Binder Type III. Oil Binders ensuring, after application on oil contaminated traffic areas and subsequent cleaning according to the instructions for use, that the surface has again sufficient grip – especially when wet – bear, in addition to the type designation, the supplementary letter R (also see SRT value).    
  • Type IV: Oil Binders which are particularly suitable for use on water bodies and characterised by the fact that a permeable encase absorbs and withholds a volume of at least 25 l. Oil Binders of Type IV represent a special, under certain circumstances also preventative, form to be used on water bodies and considerably facilitate a complete recovery after their application. Special forms have, in addition to the type designation, the supplementary letters SF (e.g. Oil Bnder Type I - SF).          

Oil Binders / Sorbents
definition:

A distinction is made between Oil Binders in Granules and Nonwoven Oil Sorbents.

Oil Booms
definition:

See (absorbent) Active Oil Booms or (containment) Passive Oil Booms.

Oil Booms with Floating Baffle
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

Oil Skimmer
definition:

Device with electrical or pneumatic drive to remove tramp oils from water surfaces, process baths, ultrasonic baths or coolants. Used in a variey of types: Belt Skimmers Drum Skimmers Suction Skimmers Weir Skimmers Mop Skimmers Disc Skimmers Tube Skimmers Floating Scum Skimmers.    

Oil Spill / Oil Pollution
definition:

Oil spills or pollution in waterways by crude oil or petroleum products. To contain these spills, Passive Oil Booms, Skimmers and chemicals (chemical dispersion) are normally used. In moderate sea states, special devices can be employed to skim oil off the surface of the water.     

OPA - Oil Pollution Act
acronym of:

U.S. oil pollution Act of 1990. It was signed into law in the wake of the sinking of the oil tanker Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Since this accident, oil tankers, vessels and owners or operators of vessels have been subject to binding requirements to prevent, mitigate and control oil spills. The Act includes, among other things, requirements prescribing that absorbent materials must be kept on board in order to clean up certain volumes of on-deck oil spills. Following is to be kept in stock - for oil tankers with a length of up to 400 feet (120 m): absorbent materials for soaking up at least 294 gallons (approx. 1.11 m³), [33 CFR Part 155.21] - for oil tankers with a length of more than 400 feet (120 m): absorbent materials for soaking up at least 504 gallons (approx. 1.9 m³), [33 CFR Part 155.205]. Spill Kits meeting these requirements bear the additional designation "OPA 90 compliant".               

OPA 90 Compliant
definition:

See Spill Kits.

Oxidising
definition:

An oxidising substance is a material that is not necessarily combustible, but may contribute to the combustion of other materials. Examples: oxygen, salts rich in oxygen such as potassium chlorate, peroxide, fluorine. GHS label element: flame over circle.          

Passive (Non-Absorbent) Oil Booms
definition:

A distinction is made between various types:

  • Curtain Oil Containment Booms: Curtain Oil Containment Booms are non-absorbent (passive) oil booms designed to float; they are fitted with fixed, round, horizontally arranged floats of polyurethane hard foam, polystyrene or foam. The basic material of the oil boom is normally fully welded PVC fabric. The lower portion of the boom consists of a flexible curtain in which a ballast weight is inserted. This is usually a galvanized steel chain acting, at the same time, as a bottom tension member and relieving the forces occurring at each point of the boom. Smaller models are often fitted with zinc-plated steel weights instead of a chain (they were previously made of lead). For some models, a steel cable is also optionally available acting as a top tension member and inserted above the floats.  
  • Oil Containment Booms with Floating Baffle: Oil Containment Booms with Floating Baffle are non-absorbent (passive) oil booms designed to float; the floats are made of polyurethane hard foam or polystyrene and mounted vertically over the entire height of the boom to maximise, even when compared with other types, its stability. When used in fast currents, they are more prone to tipping over than Curtain Booms and, for this reason, they are actually employed in calm waters. The basic material of the boom is normally fully welded PVC fabric. The ballast weights of zinc-plated steel (they were previously made of lead) are enclosed in the pockets of the floats. For some models (AR-70 ASTM), the pockets are fitted with inlet openings allowing the chambers to fill with water to achieve an even more stable position in the water. Oil Containment Booms with Floating Baffle are usually for long-term use, for example when they are permanently installed at weirs. 
  • Fence Oil Containment Booms: Fence Oil Containment Booms are containment booms designed to float with fixed, horizontally arranged floats of polyurethane hard foam or foam material. They are, however, not round as usual but attached in the form of flat panels. This enables a space-saving folding of the oil boom into neat parcels that can easily be stored in vehicles or boats, so that the oil boom is ready at hand in an emergency situation and can be quickly deployed. The Fence Oil Boom can alternatively be stored wound on reels. This system is particularly helpful for ports and harbours where a fast response time is required. Fence Oil Booms are tipically used for static or low current applications. The basic material of the boom is normally fully welded PVC fabric. The ballast weights of zinc-plated steel (they were previously made of lead) are enclosed in the pockets of the floats.  
  • Inflatable Oil Containment Booms: Air Inflatable Oil Booms are non-absorbent (passive) oil booms designed to float. The flotation elements comprise inflatable chambers that are filled with air, thus making it possible to stow the boom very compactly if compared with passive oil booms with fixed floats. It is also possible to wind on each reel a considerably higher number of metres. The inflatable air chambers must be filled with air as the boom is deployed into the water. The basic material of the boom is normally fully welded PVC fabric or vulcanized neoprene with hypalon. The ballast weight is usually a galvanized steel chain acting, at the same time, as a bottom tension member. One exception is, for example, our ShoreMax Shore Seal Oil Boom fitted, in its lower portion, with twin water tubes running parallelly and acting as a ballast weight; this enables the boom to be also deployed in dry land. Inflatable oil booms are very popular because of their space-saving storage. The model variants and application fields range from still inland waters to heavy-duty conditions in the offshore area. 
  • Trash and Debris Oil Booms: Trash and Debris Oil Booms are non-absorbent (passive) containment booms designed to float. These heavy-duty oil booms are capable of withstanding long-term deployments under very arduous conditions. They can be used to contain oil, trash and debris and to combat invasive plants. Trash and Debris Oil Booms are employed when the stability of other types of normal passive oil booms is no longer sufficient. As with the Oil Containment Booms with Floating Baffle, the floats are mounted vertically over the entire height of the boom to maximise the stability. The belting of the boom usually consists of PVC and polyester, some models are reinforced with steel.    
  • Silt Containment Booms: Silt Containment Booms are non-absorbent (passive) oil booms and feature a fine bottom netting at the skirt to control the dispersion of silt and turbidity in the surrounding water bodies. This kind of oil booms is normally used in sites engaged in marine construction. Curtain Oil Booms are used as basic model and fitted with an additional filter net with free choice of length. The height of the net can considerably exceed the effective draft of the oil boom. Care must be taken to ensure that the oil boom chosen is buoyant enough in oder to bear the additional weight of the netting and, as a consequence, the action of stronger flow forces. 
  • Trash Net Booms: Trash Net Booms are similar in design to Silt Oil Booms but the netting has a considerably coarser mesh size or its mesh size can be freely chosen. Trash Net Booms are used, for example, between the beach and the sea to keep jellies and other animals away from the swim area or to contain the spread of aquatic plants.
pH Scale / Range
definition:

The pH range measures the acidic or alkaline reaction of an aqueous solution on a scale of  0 - 14.   

  • 0 - 6 acidic
  • 7 neutral
  • 8 - 14 alkaline (basic)

A few examples:

  • Battery acid  < 0
  • Gastric acid (empty stomach)  1,0 - 1,5
  • Lemon juice  2,4
  • Cola  2,0 - 3,0
  • Vinegar  2,5
  • Fruit juice of the Morello cherry   2,7
  • Orange and apple juice  3,5
  • Wine  4,0
  • Sour milk  4,5
  • Beer  4,5 - 5,0
  • Acid rain  < 5,0
  • Coffee  5,0
  • Tea 5,5
  • Rain (natural rain water)  5,6
  • Mineral water 6,0
  • Milk 6,5
  • Water (depending on hardness)  6,0 - 8,5
  • Human saliva  6,5 - 7,4
  • Blood 7,4
  • Sea water  7,5 - 8,4
  • Pancreatic juice (intestinal juice)  8,3
  • Soap  9,0 – 10,0
  • Household ammonia  11,5
  • Bleach  12,5
  • Concrete 12,6
  • Caustic soda  13,5 - 14
Polyethylene
definition:

Polyethylene is a plastic material.

PPE - Personal Protective Equipment
acronym of:

It is divided into 3 categories or risk classes:

  • Category I: For low risks and minimal hazards. This includes light mechanical action whose effects are superficial (e.g. gardening), cleaning materials of weak action and easily reversible effects (e.g. diluted detergents), risks encountered in the handling of hot components which do not expose the user to a temperature exceeding 50 °C.
  • Category II: For medium risks causing repairable damage. Standard protection against mechanical hazards. This necessitates a type examination.
  • Category III: For high risks causing irreversible damage or fatal injury. Limited protection against ionising radiation, aggressive chemicals and their effects, for use in environments with temperatures of more than 100 °C (incl. flames, molten material, infra-red radiation) or less than -50 °C. Apart from the type examination, an annual quality assurance is obligatory.
Protective Clothing
definition:

Personal Protective Equipment.

Protective Eyewear
definition:

Safety goggles are mainly used in the workplace or in sports. Contrary to optical glasses, they are designed to protect eyes against harmful factors (strong light, dust, splinters, chemicals).   

Protective Handwear
definition:

There are different types (wristlets, gloves, mittens, etc.) divided into different purposes of use: 

  • Thermal protection – against cold or heat  
  • Mechanical protection – against injuries 
  • Infection protection – against germs and pathogenic agents 
  • Chemical protection – against aggressive chemicals

According to the European Directive on Personal Protective Equipment (89/686/EEC), protective gloves are grouped, just as other Personal Protective Equipment, into three categories: 

  • Category I: For low risks and minimal hazards. This includes light mechanical action whose effects are superficial (e.g. gardening), cleaning materials of weak action and easily reversible effects (e.g. diluted detergents), risks encountered in the handling of hot components which do not expose the user to a temperature exceeding 50 °C.
  • Category II: For medium risks causing repairable damage. Standard protection against mechanical hazards. This necessitates a type examination.
  • Category III: For high risks causing irreversible damage or fatal injury. Limited protection against ionising radiation, aggressive chemicals and their effects, for use in environments with temperatures of more than 100 °C (incl. flames, molten material, infra-red radiation) or less than -50 °C. Apart from the type examination, an annual quality assurance is obligatory..
Protective Masks
definition:

Protective masks are used to protect face or parts of it and the respiratory system. They are primarily designed to protect the respiratory organs against airborne poisons. Full face masks cover the whole area of the face, a combination of eye and respiratory protection. Half mask respirators cover only the mouth and nose area and, if necessary, they must be combined with a safety goggles. The masks are available with different filter systems or active air systems as well as in the variants with overpressure or underpressure. The filtering half masks are the most popular ones. According to EN 149:2001 (PPE Category III), they are suitable for use with liquid (not highly volatile) and solid aerosols. The passive filtering half masks protect, depending on class of filter, against a multiple of the threshold limit value: • FFP1: VdG (multiple of the limit) 4 • FFP2: VdG 10 • FFP3: VdG 30. Following limitations have to be observed: class of filter FFP1: against non-toxic fine dusts; class of filter FFP2: against non-toxic fine dusts, microorganisms, carcinogenic substances; class of filter FFP3: against non-toxic fine dusts, microorganisms, carcinogenic substances, viruses, radioactive materials.                     

Protective Suit
definition:

There are different types (full body suits, wristlets, waistcoats, etc.) divided into different purposes of use:   

  • Thermal protection – against cold or heat 
  • Mechanical protection – against injuries
  • Infection protection – against germs and pathogenic agents
  • Chemical protection – against aggressive chemicals 

According to the European Directive on Personal Protective Equipment (89/686/EEC), protective clothing is grouped, just as other Personal Protective Equipment, into three categories:  

  • Category I: For low risks and minimal hazards. This includes light mechanical action whose effects are superficial (e.g. gardening), cleaning materials of weak action and easily reversible effects (e.g. diluted detergents), risks encountered in the handling of hot components which do not expose the user to a temperature exceeding 50 °C. 
  • Category II: For medium risks causing repairable damage. Standard protection against mechanical hazards. This necessitates a type examination.
  • Category III: For high risks causing irreversible damage or fatal injury. Limited protection against ionising radiation, aggressive chemicals and their effects, for use in environments with temperatures of more than 100 °C (incl. flames, molten material, infra-red radiation) or less than -50 °C. Apart from the type examination, an annual quality assurance is obligatory. 
RAW
definition:

RAW Handel und Beratungs GmbH was founded in 1994 as a trade company for waste paper. The name RAW refers to the English word "raw" and stood, at the time of the foundation, for "Trade with raw materials".   

REACH
acronym of:

REACH is the abbreviation for Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals. The Regulation is of central importance for the registration, evaluation and restriction of chemical substances. The exact name is Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006. As an EU Regulation, REACH has immediate and equal validity in all member states of the European Community. The law entered into force on 1 June 2007 replacing the old European chemicals legislation. Thanks to REACH, the European chemicals legislation has been radically simplified and harmonised.       

Reel
definition:

Reels are used for stowing Passive Oil Booms rolled up. They are available in different versions: manually, hydraulic, pneumatic operated. For stationary or mobile installation on trailers.   

Residual Content of Ash
definition:

The residual content of ash is a value from the area of thermal waste treatment. It indicates how much of the original volume of the material will remain after combustion. The lower this value is, the better, because residues of the combustion, depending on the degree of contamination, can be disposed of as special waste.

Respiratory Protection
definition:

Personal protective equipment (protective masks) protecting the user against harmful materials or particles that can be inhaled through mouth and nose. Regulated by the BGR 192 - Use of eye and face protection.       

Road Salt
definition:

Road de-icing salts are composed of at least 94 % sodium chloride (NaCl, common salt). They are used to melt ice and snow on traffic areas. Due to environmental protection considerations, it is forbidden to use road salt on sidewalks nowadays. The utilisation of Grit for Winter Clearance or CMA represent an ecological alternative.       

RoHS - Restriction of Hazardous Substances
acronym of:

European Directives 2002/95/EC to restric the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. It regulates the use of hazardous substances in equipment and components as well as the respective transposition into national law.      

S Phrases
abbreviation of:

S 1 Keep locked up S 2 Keep out of the reach of children S 3 Keep in a cool place S 4 Keep away from living quarters S 5 Keep contents under...XY... (appropriate liquid) S 6 Keep under ...XY... (inert gas) S 7 Keep container tightly closed S 8 Keep container dry S 9 Keep container in a well-ventilated place S 12 Do not keep the container sealed S 13 Keep away from food, drink and animal feedingstuffs S 14 Keep away from ...XY... (incompatible materials S 15  Keep away from heat S 16 Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking S 17 Keep away from combustible material S 18 Handle and open container with care S 20 When using do not eat or drink S 21 When using do not smoke S 22 Do not breathe dust S 23 Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording) S 24 Avoid contact with skin S 25 Avoid contact with eyes S 26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice S 27 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing S 28 After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... XY... S 29 Do not empty into drains S 30 Never add water to this product S 33 Take precautionary measures against static discharges S 34 Avoid shock and friction S 35 This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way S 36 Wear suitable protective clothing S 37 Wear suitable gloves S 38 In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment S 39 Wear eye/face protection S 40 To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use ...XY... S 41 In case of fire and/or explosion do not breathe fumes S 42 During fumigation/spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment (appropriate wording) S 43 In case of fire, use ...XY... (if water increases risk, add 'Never use water') S 44 If you feel unwell, seek medical advice (show the label where possible) S 45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) S 46 If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label S 47 Keep at temperature not exceeding ...XY...°C S 48 Keep wet with ...XY... (appropriate materia) S 49 Keep only in the original container S 50 Do not mix with ...XY... S 51 Use only in well-ventilated areas S 52 Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas S 53 Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use S 56 Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point S 57 Use appropriate container to avoid environmental contamination S 59 Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling S 60 This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste S 61 Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheets S 63 In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest S 64 If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious). S phrases combinations: S 1/2 Keep locked up and out of reach of children S 3/7 Keep container tightly closed in a cool place S 3/9/14 Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ...XY... S 3/9/14/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ...XY... S 3/9/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place S 3/14 Keep in a cool place away from ...XY... S 7/8 Keep container tightly closed and dry S 7/9 Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place S 7/47 Keep container tightly closed and at a temperature not exceeding ...XY... °C S 20/21 When using do not eat, drink or smoke S 24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes S 27/28 After contact with skin, take off immediately all contaminated clothing, and wash immediately with plenty of ...XY... S 29/35 Do not empty into drains; dispose of this material and its container in a safe way S 29/56 Do not empty into drains; dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point S 36/37 Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves S 36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection S 36/39 Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection S 37/39 Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection S 47/49 Keep only in the original container at a temperature not exceeding ...XY... °C. 

Silt Containment Boom
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

Skid Resistance
definition:

Is connected with the SRT value. The SRT value indicates the slip resistance and safety of floors and pavements. As regards sorbents / oil binders, the SRT value specifies to what extent the grip of the road surface is restored after contamination with slippery substances (e.g. oil). Examples: SRT value of 10 % means that the road pavement has 90 % of its original grip. SRT value of 20 % means that the road pavement has 80 % of its original grip. The optimal SRT value is therefore 0 % because, in this case, 100 % of the original grip is restored.              

Skimmer
definition:

See Oil Skimmers.

Skimmer Belt
definition:

Skimmer belts serve to recover oil when used together with a Belt Skimmer. They are made of PP, PVC or textile fabric, partially they have an additional teflon coating. Oil sticks to the belt of the Skimmer thanks to its adhesive properties, the belts are therefore lipophilic / hydrophobic.       

Solid Lubricants
definition:

Materials used to reduce friction as well as wear and tear are called lubricants. They are also used for corrosion protection, vibration damping, cooling, sealing effect and power transmission. Lubricants are divided in different forms / physical states: liquid lubricants (lubricating oils and cooling lubricants), lubricating greases, solid lubricants (e.g. graphite), gaseous lubricants (e.g. air). All lubricants consist, in principle, of a base fluid to which appropriate additives are added (additional ingredients). Lubricants have to be changed or renewed at specific but regular intervals. Following factors play a role: thermal influence – when the lubricant is used as a heat conductor; mechanical influence – when the lubricant reduces the action of friction; aging – certain additives lose their effectiveness; interaction with other materials – fuels, air, moisture, etc.                     

Spill Emergency Kit
definition:

See Spill Kit.

Spill Kit
definition:

A Spill Kit is a pre-packaged unit containing different Oil Sorbents and / or Universal Sorbents to respond quickly and with the right products when leaks and spills occur. Spill Kits are available in many different variants and dimensions or their content can be customized to exactly meet requirements on site. In addition to binders, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) or futher accessories (e.g. broom) are often contained to be more independent on site. Also ADR Spill Kits. Special regulations apply for maritime shipping prescribing that absorbent materials must be kept on board: OPA – Oil Pollution Act . 

Spillbarrier / Spill Dike
definition:

Spill Dike for liquids made of polyurethane. It is used for a safe containment and confinement in vulnerable areas when spills and leaks occur. The malleable and sticky material forms a tight seal without leaving any residue. The Spill Barrier has a high chemical compatibility, can be easily cleaned and is re-usable.              

Spillblocker
definition:

See Spillbarrier.

SRT Value
abbreviation of:

The SRT value indicates the slip resistance and safety of floors and pavements. As regards sorbents / oil binders, the SRT value specifies to what extent the grip of the road surface is restored after contamination with slippery substances (e.g. oil). Examples: SRT value of 10 % means that the road pavement has 90 % of its original grip. SRT value of 20 % means that the road pavement has 80 % of its original grip. The optimal SRT value is therefore 0 % because, in this case, 100 % of the original grip is restored. 

Suction Skimmer
definition:

Special suction device that floats on the surface of the water and is able to recover supernatant oils. Also see Skimmers.  

Surfactants
definition:

Surfactants reduce the surface tension of liquids. They make it possible to mix hydrophobic / lipophilic liquids wit hydrophilic / lipophobic liquids. Without the use of surfactants, an emulsion would be formed.    

Tidal Range
definition:

The difference in sea level between high and low tides. It should be taken into consideration when Passive Oil Booms are deployed.   

Tide Slide
definition:

The Tide Slide is a special end for Passive Oil Booms. It comprises a steel slide with a bult-in bearing allowing the oil boom to rise and fall during tidal fluctuations (compensation of the tidal range).

Tow Bridle
definition:

Tow bridles are used for deployment of an Oil Spill Containment Boom on water. They are usually attached to the last boom segment by means of quick connector / slide and they have a rope section that can be fastened to a boat. There are different model options with additional floats to enhance the stability during towing operations and / or with integrated springs to absorb shock when towing the boom.   

Toxic
definition:

A substance is toxic when, if inhaled, swallowed or it penetrates the skin in small quantities, it can lead to death or cause acute / chronic damage to health. Examples: methanol, carbon tetrachloride. GHS label element: skull and crossbones.

Toxic Waste
definition:

This is hazardous waste (special waste).  

Tramp Oil
definition:

Tramp oils are oils from the machine tools. Emulsions and dispersions normally used in the metalworking industry are subjected to extremely heavy stress such as introducing tramp oils from the machine tools. If foreign oils float on the surface like a thick cream layer, the emulsion can not breathe. When an emulsion is not able to breathe, it dies and causes malodours. 

Trash Boom
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

Trash Net Booms
definition:

See Passive Oil Booms.

Universal Absorbent Flakes
definition:

Universal Absorbent Flakes are shredded Universal Nonwoven Sorbents of polypropylene. Due to their hydrophilic and lipophilic properties, they are used in nearly all areas where liquids have to be absorbed. Thanks to their high chemical compatibility, there are only a few restrictions as regards acids and bases. The flakes provide a maximum contact area to absorb the liquid and they ensure very high absorption and retention capacity, without allowing the absorbed liquid to escape again.

VbF - Regulations on Flammable Liquids
acronym of:

Invalid starting from January 1, 2003.

Very Toxic
definition:

A substance is very toxic when, if inhaled, swallowed or it penetrates the skin in very small quantities, it can lead to death or cause acute / chronic damage to health. Examples: heroin, nicotine. GHS label element: skull and crossbones.

Viscosity
definition:

Provides information on the thickness of a substance. The higher the viscosity, the more viscous (thick) the substance.   

VwVwS – Administrative Regulation on the Classification of Substances Hazardous to Waters into Water Hazard Classes
acronym of:

Starting from March 1, 2010, it has been replaced by regulations according to § 62 WHG (Water Management Act) Paragraph 4 of the WHG (Wasserhaushaltsgesetz = Water Management Act).    

Waste Oil
definition:

Waste oil is defined as used oil that no longer satisfies the demands, for example, to cooling and lubrication. It is typically oil from technical applications, motor, gear and hydraulic oil too. As oil pollutes drinking water, it must be disposed of in accordance with the statutory regulations. Each seller of lubricants is obliged to take back the same quantity of waste oil and to dispose of it in a proper manner. A disposal together with household waste or a discharge of oil into the sewer system is liable to prosecution. 

Water Protection
definition:

In connection with the WGK – Water Hazard Class and the WHG – Water Resources Act.    

WEEE - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
acronym of:

European Directive 2002/96/EC on the disposal of old electronic equipment. The implementation takes place within Germany as a part of the ElektroG - Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act.     

WGK – Water Hazard Classes
acronym of:

The Water Hazard Classes are a simplified identification of the water hazard potential of different substances.

  • WGK 1 = low hazard to waters 
  • WGK 2 = hazard to waters 
  • WGK 3 = severe hazard to waters
WHG – Water Resources Act / Water Management Act
acronym of:

Law on the protection and use of surface waters and groundwater as well as the renaturalization of water bodies, the hydrological planning and flood control.